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Directions (Qs. 1-6): A number of sentences are given below which, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

1. (A) Realists believe that there is an objective reality “out there” independent of ourselves.
(B) This reality exists solely by virtue of how the world is and it is in principle discoverable by application of the methods of science.
(C) They believe in the possibility of determining whether or not a theory is indeed really true or false.
(D) I think it is fair to say that this is the position to which most working scientists subscribe.
(a) ABCD       (b) CDBA       (c) DCBA       (d) BCAD

2. (A) There is a strong manufacturing base for a variety of products.
(B) India has come a long way on the technology front.
(C) But the technology adopted has been largely of foreign origin.
(D) There are, however, areas such as atomic energy, space, agriculture, and defence where significant strides have been made in evolving relevant technologies within the country.
(a) ADCB       (b) DBAC       (c) BACD       (d) CBAD


3. (A) In emission trading, the government fixes the total amount of pollution that is acceptable to maintain a desired level of air quality.
(B) Economists argue this approach makes air pollution control more cost-effective than the current practice of fixing air pollution standards and expecting all companies to pollute below these standards.
(C) USA uses emission trading to control air pollution.
(D) It then distributes emission permits to all companies in the region, which add up to the overall acceptable level of emission.
(a) BADC       (b) ACDB       (c) CBAD       (d) DBAC


4. (A) The individual companies vary in size, from the corner grocery to the industrial giant.
(B) Policies and management methods within firms range from formal, well-planned organization and controls to slipshod day-to-day operations.
(C) Various industries offer a wide array of products or services through millions of firms largely independent of each other.
(D) Variation in the form of ownership contributes to diversity in capital investment, volume of business and financial structure.
(a) DBCA       (b) CADB       (c) BADC       (d) ADCB


5. (A) All levels of demand, whether individual, aggregate, local, national or international are subject to change.
(B) At the same time science and technology add new dimensions to products, their uses, and the methods used to market them.
(C) Aggregate demand fluctuates with changes in the level of business activity, GNP and national income.
(D) The demand of individuals tends to vary with changing needs and rising income.
(a) CBDA       (b) DCAB       (c) BCAD       (d) ADCB


6. (A) Secret persons shall strike with weapons, fire or poison.
(B) Clans mutually supporting each other shall be made to strike at the weak points.
(C) He shall destroy their caravans, herds, forests and troop reinforcements.
(D) The conqueror shall cause enemy kingdoms to be destroyed by neighbouring kings, jungle tribes, pretenders or unjustly treated princes.
(a) DCBA       (b) ABCD       (c) BDCA       (d) ADCB


Directions (Qs. 7-19): Arrange the sentences A, B, C, D to form a logical sequence between sentences 1 and 6:
7. 1.What does the state do in a country where tax morality is very low?
(A) It tries to spy upon the tax payers.
(B) It investigates income sources and spending patterns.
(C) Exactly what the tax authority tries to do now even if inconsistently.
(D) It could also encourage people to denounce to the tax authorities any conspicuously prosperous neighbours why may be suspected of net paying their taxes properly.
6. The ultimate solution would be an Orwellian System.
(a) BACD       (b) DBAC       (c) ABCD       (d) DCBA


8. 1. The fragile Yugoslav state has uncertain future.
(A) Thus there will surely be chaos and uncertainty if people fail to settle their differences.
(B) Sharp ideological differences already exist in the country.
(C) Ethnic, regional, linguistic and material disparities are profound.
(D) The country will also loose the excellent reputation it enjoyed in international arena.
6. at worst, it will once more become vulnerable to international conspiracy and intrigue.
(a) BCAD       (b) ADCB       (c) ACBD       (d) DBCA

9. 1. India’s experience of industrialization is characteristics of the difficulties faced by a newly-independent developing country.
(A) In 1947 India was undoubtedly as underdeveloped country with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world.
(B) Indian industrialization was the result of a conscious deliberate policy of growth by indigenous political elite.
(C) Today India ranks fifth in the international community of nations if measured in terms of purchasing power.
(D) Even today, however, the benefits of Indian industrialization since independence have not reached the masses.
6.  In India, there have been limited successes; one more example of growth without development.
(a) CDAB       (b) DCBA       (c) CABD       (d) BACD


10. 1. The New Economic Policy comprises of the various policy measures and changes introduced since July 1991.
(A) There is a common thread running through all these measures.
(B) The objective is simple- to improve the efficiency of the system.
(C) The regulator mechanism involving multitude of controls has fragmented the capacity and reduced competition even in the private sector.
(D) The thrust of new policy is towards creating a more competitive environment as a means to improving the productivity and efficiency of the economy.
6. This is to be achieved by removing the barriers and restriction on the entry and growth of firms.
(a) DCAB       (b) ABCD       (c) BDAC       (d) CDBA

11. 1. It is significant that one of the most common objections to competition is that it is bad.
(A) This is important because in a system of free enterprise based on private property chances are not equal and there is indeed a strong case for reducing that inequality of opportunity.
(B) Rather it is a choice between a system where it is the will of a few persons that decides who is to get what and one where it depends at least partly on the ability and the enterprise of the people.
(C) Although competition and justice may have little else in common, it is as much a commendation of competition of justice that it is no respecter of justice.
(D) The choice today is not between a system in which everybody will get what he deserves according to some universal standard and one where individual shares are determined by chance or goodwill.
6. The fact that opportunities open to the poor in a competitive society are much more restricted than those open to the rich, does not make it less true that in such a society the poor are more free than a person commanding much greater material comfort in a different type of society.
(a) CDBA       (b) DCBA       (c) ABCD       (d) BADC


12. 1. The necessity for regional integration in South Asia is underlined by the very history of the last 45 years since the liquidation of the British Empire in this part of the world.
(A) After the partition of the Indian sub continent, Pakistan was formed in that very area which the imperial powers had always marked out as the potential base for operations against the Russian power in Central Asia.
(B) Because of the disunity and ill-will among the South Asian neighbours, particular India and Pakistan, the great powers from outside the area could meddle into their affairs and thereby keep neighbours apart.
(C) It needs to be added that it was the bountiful supply of sophisticated arms that emboldened Pakistan to go for war like bellicosity towards India.
(D) As a part of the cold war strategy of the U.S., Pakistan was sucked into Washington’s military alliance spreading the over the years.
6. Internally too, it was the massive induction of American arms into Pakistan which empowered the military junta of the country to stuff out the civilian government and destroy democracy in Pakistan.
(a) ACBD       (b) ABDC       (c) CBAD       (d) DCAB

13. 1. Commercial energy consumption shows an increasing trend and poses a major challenge for the future.
(A) The demand for petroleum during 1996-97 and 2006-07 is anticipated to be 81 million tones and 125 million tones respectively.
(B) According to the projection of 14th Power Survey Committee Report, the electricity generation requirements from utilities will be about 415 billion units by 1996-97 and 824 billion units by 2006-07.
(C) The production of coal should reach 303 million tones by 1996-97 to achieve Plan targets and 460 million tones by 2006-07.
(D) The demand for petroleum products has already outstripped indigenous production.
6. Electricity is going to play a major role in the development of infrastructure facilities.
(a) DACB       (b) CADB       (c) BADC       (d) ABCD

14. 1. The success of any unit in a competitive environment depends on prudent management of resources.
(A) In this context it would have been more appropriate if the concept of accelerated depreciation together with additional incentives towards capital allowances for recouping a portion of the cost of replacements out of the current generations had been accepted.
(B) Added to this are the negligible retention of profits because of inadequate capital allowances are artificial disallowances of genuine outflows.
(C) One significant cause for poor generation of surpluses is the high cost of capital and its servicing cost.
(D) The lack of a mechanism in India tax laws for quick recovery of capital costs has not received its due attention.
6. While this may apparently look costly from the point of view of the exchequer, the ultimate cost to the government and the community in the losses suffered through poor viability will be prohibitive.
(a) ADBC       (b) BCDA       (c) CBDA       (d) DBAC

15. 1. Count Rumford is perhaps best known for his observations on the nature of heat.
(A) He undertook several experiments in order to test the theories of the origin of frictional heat.
(B) According to the calorists, the heat was produced by the “caloric” squeezed out of the chips in the process of separating them from the larger pieces of metal.
(C) Lavoisier had introduced the term “caloric” for the weightless substance heat, and has included it among the chemical elements along with carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
(D) In the ammunitions factory in Munich, Rumford noticed that a considerable degree of heat developed in a brass gun while it was being bored.
6. Rumford could not believe that the amount of heat generated could have come from the small amount of dust created.
(a) ABCD       (b) CBDA       (c) ACDB       (d) CDAB


16. 1. The death of cinema has been predicted annually.
(A) It hasn’t happened.
(B) It was said that the television would kill it off-and indeed audiences plummeted, reaching a low in 1984.
(C) Film has enjoyed a renaissance, and audiences are now roughly double of what they were a decade ago.
(D) Then the home computer became the projected nemesis followed by satellite television.
(a) CADB       (b) BDAC       (c) ABDC       (d) DABC

17. 1. The idea of sea-floor spreading preceded the theory of plate tectonics.
(A) The hypothesis was soon substantiated by the discovery that periodic reversals of the earth’s magnetic field are recorded in the oceanic crust.
(B) In its original version, it described the creation and destruction of the ocean floor, but it did not specify rigid lithospheric plates.
(C) An explanation of this process devised by F. J. Vine and D. H. Matthews of Princeton is now generally accepted.
(D) The sea-floor spreading hypothesis was formulated chiefly by Harry H. Hess of Princeton University in the early 1960s.
6. As magma rises under the mid-ocean ridge, ferromagnetic minerals in the magma become magnetized in the direction of the geomagnetic field.
(a) DCBA       (b) ABDC       (c) CBDA       (d) DBAC


18. 1. Visual recognition involves string and retrieving of memories.
(A) Psychologists of the Gastalt School maintain that objects are recognized as a whole in parallel procedure.
(B) Neutral activity, triggered by the eye, forms an image in the brain’s memory system that constitutes an internal representation of the viewed object.
(C) Controversy surrounds the question of whether recognition is a single one-step procedure or a serial step-by-step one.
(D) When an object is encountered again, it is matched with its internal recognition and thereby recognized.
6. The internal representation is matched with the retinal image in a single question.
(a) DBAC       (b) DCAB       (c) BDCA       (d) CABD


19. 1. The history of mammals dates back at least to Triassic time.
(A) Miocene and Pliocene time was marked by culmination of several groups and continued approach towards modern characters.
(B) Development was retarded, however, until the sudden acceleration of evolutional change that occurred in the oldest Paleocene.
(C) In the Oligocene Epoch, there was further improvement, with appearance of some new lines and extinction of theories.
(D) This led to Eocene time to increase in average size, larger mental capacity, and special adaptations for different modes of life.
6. The peak of the career of mammals in variety and average large size was attained in this epoch.
(a) BDCA       (b) ACDB       (c) BCDA       (d) ACBD

Directions (Qs. 20-24): In each question, four parts of a sentence have been given. From the alternatives find the combination which best gives a meaningful sentence.
20. (A) There was the hope that in another existence a greater happiness would reward one
(B) Previous existence, and the effort to do less would be less difficult too when
(C) It would be less difficult to bear the evils of one’s own life if
(D) One could think that they were but the necessary outcome of one’s in a
(a) CABD       (b) BDCA       (c) BADC       (d) CDBA

21. (A) he can only renew himself if his soul
(B) He renews himself and
(C) The writer can only be fertile if
(D) Is constantly enriched by fresh experience
(a) CBAD       (b) CADB       (c) BDCA       (d) BACD

22. (A) But a masterpiece is
(B) Untaught genius
(C) A laborious career than as the lucky fluke of
(D) More likely to come as the culminating point of
(a) CDAB       (b) ADCB       (c) CDBA       (d) ACDB

23. (A) What interests you is the way I which you have created the illusion
(B) They are angry with you, for it was
(C) The public is easily disillusioned and then
(D) The illusion they loved; they do not understand that
(a) ACBD       (b) BDCA       (c) CBDA       (d) BCAD

24. (A) An adequate physical and social infrastructure level
(B) The pattern of spatial growth in these towns as also to
(C) The failure of the government to ensure
(D) The roots of the riots are related to
(a) ACBD       (b) DBCA       (c) ABDC       (d) CBDA

Directions (Qs. 25-29): In each of the following questions, the answer choice suggest the alternative arrangements of four sentences A, B, C, and D. Choose the alternative which suggests a coherent paragraph.
25. (A) To have settled one’s affairs is a very good preparation to leading the rest of one’s life without concern for the future.
(B) When I have finished this book I shall know where I stand.
(C) One does not die immediately after one has made one’s will; one makes one’s will as a precaution.
(D) I can afford then to do what I choose with the years that remain to me.
(a) DBAC       (b) CABD       (c) BDAC       (d) CBDA

26. (A) It is said that India has always been in a hurry to conform to the western thought especially the American.
(B) Even the smaller countries have the guts to take a firm contrarian stand if they feel the policies happen to compromise their country’s interest.
(C) It’s one thing to sprout theories on liberalization, and entirely another to barter the interests of the nation in its name.
(D) In this case too, while a large number of countries are yet to ratify the GATT, India has not only ratified the treaty, but is also preparing to amend the Patents Act.
(a) CABD       (b) DCAB       (c) CBDA       (d) BDCA

27. (A) But instead you are faced with another huge crag and the weary trail continues.
(B) No, the path winds on and another mountain bars your way.
(C) When for days you have been going through a mountain pass a moment comes when you are sure that after winding around the great mass of rock in front of you, you will come upon the plain.
(D) Surely after this you will see the plain.
 (a) CDBA      (b) BADC       (c) CADB       (d) BCAD

28. (A) During one exhibition, however, some air became mixed with the hydrogen, and in the words of the shaken performer: “The explosion was so dreadful that I imagined all my teeth had been blown out!”
(B) An entertainer would finish his act by blowing the hydrogen he had inhaled towards a lighted candle; as the hydrogen caught fire, flames would shoot menacingly from his lips.
(C) A paper filled with hydrogen amazed guests by zooming off in to space.
(D) When people learn about its unique lighter-than-air property, they began to use it in all sorts of parlour stunts.
(a) DCBA       (b) DBAC       (c) CABD       (d) ACBD

29. (A) It is exciting and various.
(B) I am a writer as I might have been a doctor or a lawyer.
(C) The writer is free to work in what he believes.
(D) It is so pleasant a profession that it is not surprising if a vast number of persons adopt it who have no qualifications for it.
(a) CADB       (b) ABDC       (c) DBCA       (d) BDAC

Directions (Qs. 30-34): Arrange sentences A, B, C and D between sentences 1 and 6 to form a logical sequence of six sentences.
30. 1. It is often said that good actors can get out of a play more than the author has put into it.
(A) A good actor, bringing to a part his own talent, often gives it a value that the layman on reading the play had not seen in it, but at the utmost he can do no more than reach the ideal that the author has seen in his mind’s eye.
(B) In all my plays, I have been fortunate enough to have some of the parts acted as I wanted; but in none have I had all the parts so acted.
(C) That is not true.
(D) He has to be an actor of address to do this; for the most part the author has to be satisfied with an approximation of the performance he visualized.
6. This is so obviously inevitable for the actor who is suited to a certain role may well be engaged and you have to put up with the second or third best because there is no help for it.
(a) BACD       (b) DACB       (c) CADB       (d) DCBA

31. 1. I can think of no serious prose play that has survived the generation that gave it birth.
(A) They are museum pieces.
(B) They are revived now and then because a famous part tempts a leading actor or a manager in want of a stop gap thinks he will put on a play on which he has no loyalties to pay.
(C) A few comedies have haphazardly traveled down on a couple of centuries or so.
(D) The audience laughs at their wit with politeness and at their farce with embarrassment.
6. They are not held nor taken out of themselves.
(a) CDBA       (b) CABD       (c) ABDC       (d) BACD

32. 1. The wind had savage allies.
(A) If it had not been for my closely fitted helmet, the explosions might have shattered my eardrums.
(B) The first clap of thunder came as a deafening explosion that literally shook my teeth.
(C) I did not hear the thunder I actually felt it – an almost unbearable physical existence.
(D) I saw lightening all around me in every shape imaginable.
6. It was raining so torrentially that I thought I would drown in mid air.
(a) BCAD       (b) CADB       (c) CBDA       (d) ACDB
33. 1. All human beings are aware of the existence of a power greater than that of the mortals – the name given to such a power by individuals is an outcome of birth, education and choice.
(A) Logically, therefore such a power should be remembered in good times also.
(B) Their other philanthropic contributions include the construction and maintenance of religious places such as temples or gurudwaras.
(C) Industrial organizations also contribute to the veneration of this power by participating in activities such as religious ceremonies and festivities organized by the employees.
(D) This power provides an anchor in times of adversity, difficulty and trouble.
6. The top management/managers should participate in all such events, irrespective of their personal choice.
(a) CADB       (b) BCAD       (c) DACB       (d) DBCA

34. 1. A thorough knowledge of the path or course to be followed is essential for achieving success.
(A) Seniors must show the path clearly by laying down the precise expectations of the management in terms of job description, key result areas and personal targets.
(B) They should also ‘light the path’ by personal example.
(C) Advice tendered or help offered must be objectively evaluated for its effectiveness in achieving the desired goal.
(D) A display of arrogance and a false sense of ‘self worth’, in order to belittle those who come to help, prove dysfunctional.
6. The individuality of each employee must be respected.
(a) CDAB       (b) CADB       (c) BADC       (d) ABCD

Directions (Qs. 35-43): Arrange sentences A, B, C and D between sentences 1 and 6 so as to form a logical sequence of six sentences.
35. 1. Currency movements can have a dramatic impact on equity returns for foreign investors.
(A) This is not surprising as many developing economies try to peg their exchange rates to the U.S. dollar or to a basket of currencies.
(B) Many developing economies manage to keep exchange rate volatility lower than that in the industrial economies.
(C) India has also gone in for the full float on the current account and abolished the managed exchange rate.
(D) Dramatic exceptions are Argentina, Brazil and Nigeria.
6. Another emerging market specific risk is liquidity risk.
(a) ADBC       (b) CDAB       (c) BDAC       (d) CABD

36. 1. Total forgiveness for a mistake generates a sense of complacency towards target achievement, among the employees.
(A) In such a situation, the work ethos gets distorted and individuals get a feeling that they can get away with any lapse.
(B) The feeling that they develop is whether I produce results or not, the management will not punish me or does not have the guts to punish me.
(C) Also, excess laxity damages management credibility because for a long time the management has maintained that dysfunctional behaviour will result in punishment and when something goes wrong, it fails to take specific punitive action.
(D) The severity of the punishment may be reduced by modifying it but some action must be taken against the guilty so as to serve as a remainder for all others in the organization.
6. Moreover it helps to establish the management’s images of being firm, fair and yet human.
(a) DCBA       (b) BACD       (c) DBCA       (d) CABD

37. 1. But the vessel kept going away.
(A) He looked anxiously around.
(B) There was nothing to see but the water and empty sky.
(C) He could now barely see her funnel and masts when heaved up on a high wave.
(D) He did not know for what.
6. A breaking wave slapped in the face and choking him.
(a) DBCA       (b) ACDB       (c) CADB       (d) ABCD

38. 1. Managers must lead by example they should not be averse to giving a hand in manual work; if required.
(A) They should also update their competence to guide their subordinates; this would be possible only if they keep in regular touch with new processes, machines, instruments, gauges, system and gadgets.
(B) Work must be allocated to different groups and team members in clear, specific terms.
(C) Too much of wall-building is detrimental to the exercise of the ‘personal charisma’ of the leader whose presence should not be felt only through notices, circulars or memos, but by being seen physically.
(D) Simple, clean living among one’s people should be insisted upon.
6. This would mean the maintaining of an updated organization char; laying down job descriptions; identifying key result areas; setting personal targets; and above all monitoring of performance to meet organizational goals.
(a) BDAC       (b) BCDA       (c) ADCB       (d) ACDB

39. 1. The top management should perceive the true worth of people and only then make friends.
(A) Such ‘true friends’ are very few and very rare.
(B) Factors such as affluence, riches, outward sophistication and conceptual abilities are not prerequisites for genuine friendship.
(C) Such people must be respected and kept close to the heart.
(D) Business realities call for developing a large circle of acquaintances and contacts; however; all of them will be motivated by their own self-interest and it would be wrong to treat them as genuine friends.
6. There is always a need for real friends to whom one can turn for balanced, unselfish advice, more so when one is caught in a dilemma.
(a) ABCD       (b) ADBC       (c) ACDB       (d) ACBD

40. 1. Managers, especially the successful ones, should guard against ascribing to themselves qualities and attributes which they may not have, or may have in a measure much less than what they think they have!
(A) External appearances can be deceptive.
(B) To initiate action without being in possession of full facts can lead to disastrous results.
(C) Also one should develop confidents who can be used as sounding boards in order to check one’s own thinking against that of the others.
(D) It is also useful to be receptive to feedback about oneself so that a real understanding of the ‘self’ exists.
6. A false perception can be like wearing coloured glasses – all facts get tainted by the colour of the glass and the mind interprets them wrongly to fit into the perception.
(a) DCAB       (b) BADC       (c) DABC       (d) BCAD

41. 1. Conflicting demands for resources are always voiced by different functions/departments in an organization.
(A) Every manager examines the task entrusted to him and evaluates the sources required.
(B) Availability of resources in full measure makes task achievement easy because it reduces the effort needed to some-what make do.
(C) A safety cushion is built into demand for resources to offset the adverse impact of any cut imposed by the seniors.
(D) This aspect needs to be understood as a reality.
6. dynamic, energetic, growth oriented and wise management is always are confronted with the inadequacy of resources with respect to one of the four Ms (men, machines, money and materials) and the two Ts (time and technology).
 (a) DABC      (b) ACBD       (c) ABCD       (d) BCDA

42. 1. Despite the passage of time, a large number of conflicts continue to remain alive, because the wronged parties, in reality or in imagination, wish to take revenge upon each other, thus creating a vicious circle.
(A) At times, managers are called upon to take ruthless decisions in the long-term interests of the organization.
(B) People hurt others, at times knowingly, to teach them a lesson and at other times because they lack correct understanding of the other person’s stand.
(C) The delegation of any power to any person is never absolute.
(D) Every ruthless decision will be accepted easily if the situation at the moment of committing the act is objectively analyzed, shared openly and discussed rationally.
6. Power is misused; its effects can last only for a while, since employees are bound to confront it some day.
(a) BCAD       (b) ADBC       (c) DABC       (d) BADC

43. 1. Managers need to differentiate among those who commit an error once, those who are repetitively errant but can be corrected, and those who are basically wicked.
(A) The persons in this category will resort to sweet-talk and make all sorts of promises on being caught, but, at the first opportunity will revert to their bad ways.
(B) Managers must take ruthless action against the basically wicked and ensure their separation from the organization at the earliest.
(C) The first category needs to be corrected softly and duly counseled; the second category should be dealt with firmly and duly counseled till they realize the danger of persisting with their errant behaviour.
(D) It is the last category of whom the managers must be most wary.
6. The punishment must be fair and based on the philosophy of giving all the possible opportunities and help prior to taking ruthless action.
(a) ADCB       (b) CDAB       (c) CADB       (d) BDAC

Directions (Qs.45-49): answer the questions based on the following information. Each of the questions consists of four sentenced marked A, B, C and D. you are required to arrange the sentences in a proper sequence so as to make a coherent paragraph.

45. (A) Where there is division, there must be conflict not only division between man and woman but also division on the basis of race, religion and language.
(B) We said the present condition of racial divisions, linguistic divisions has brought out so many wars.
(C) Also we went into the question as to why does this conflict between man and man exist.
(D) May we continue with what we were discussing last evening?
(a) ABCD       (b) DBCA       (c) BCAD       (d) BDAC

46. (A) No other document gives us so intimate a sense of the tone and temper of the first generation poets.
(B) Part of the interest of the journal is course historical.
(C) and the clues to Wordsworth’s creative processes which the journal are of decisive significance.
(D) No even in their own letters do Wordsworth and Coleridge stand so present before us than they do through the references in the journal.
(a) BACD       (b) BDAC       (c) CBAD       (d) DABC

47. (A) These high plans died, slowly but definitely, and were replaced by the dream of a huge work on philosophy.
(B) In doing whatever little he could of the new plan, the poet managed to write speculations on theology, and political theory.
(C) The poet’s huge ambitions included writing a philosophic epic on the origin of evil.
(D) However, not much was done in this regard either with only fragments being written.
(a) ABCD       (b) CBAD       (c) CDAB       (d) CADB

48. (A) We can never leave off wondering how that which has ever been should cease to be.
(B) As we advance in life, we acquire a keener sense of the value of time.
(C) Nothing else, indeed, seems to be of any consequence; and we become misers in this sense.
(D) We try arrest its few last tottering steps, and to make it linger on the brink of the grave.
(a) ACDB       (b) BCDA       (c) BDCA       (d) ABCD

49. (A) There is no complete knowledge about anything.
(B) Our thinking is the outcome of knowledge, and knowledge is always limited.
(C) Knowledge always goes hand in hand with ignorance.
(D) Therefore, our thinking which is born out of knowledge, is always limited under all circumstances.
(a) BCAD       (b) BCDA       (c) DABC       (d) CBDA

Directions (Qs. 50-55): Arrange the four sentences in their proper order so that they make a logically coherent paragraph.

50. (A) Still, Sophie might need an open heart surgery later in life and now be more prone to respiratory infections.
(B) But with the news that infant daughter Sophie has a hole in her heart, he appears quite vulnerable.
(C) While the condition sounds bad it is not life threatening and frequently corrects itself.
(D) Sylvester Stallone has made millions and built a thriving career out of looking invincible.
(a) DCAB       (b) DBAC       (c) DBCA       (d) DCBA

51. (A) However, the severed head could not grow back if fire could be applied instantly to the amputated part.
(B) To get rid of this monstrosity was a truly a Herculean task for as soon as one head was cut off two new ones replaced it.
(C) Hercules accomplished this labour with the aid of an assistant who cauterized the necks as fast as Hercules cut off the heads!
(D) One of the twelve laborers of Hercules was the killing of hydra, a water monster with nine heads.
(a) DCBA       (b) ABCD       (C) DBAC       (d) BDCA

52. (A) That Hollywood is a man’s world is certainly true but it is not the whole truth.
(B) Even Renaissance film actress Jodie Foster who hosts this compendium of movie history, confesses surprise at this.
(C) She says that she had no idea that women were so active in the industry even in those days.
(D) During the silent era, for example, female script writers outnumbered males 10 to 1.
(a) ADBC       (b) ABDC       (c) DCAB       (d) ABCD

53. (A) Its business decisions are made on the timely and accurate flow of information.
(B) It has 1,700 employees in 13 branches and representative offices across the Asia-Pacific region.
(C) For employees to maintain a competitive edge in a fast-moving field, they must have quick access to JP Morgan’s proprietary trade related data.
(D) JP Morgan’s is one of the largest banking institutions in the US and a premier international trading firm.
(a) DBAC       (b) DCBA       (c) CDAB       (d) DCAB

54. (A) The Saheli Programme run by the US Cross-Cultural Solutions is offering a three week tour of India that involves a lot more than frenzied sight seeing.
(B) Participants interested in women’s issues will learn about arranged marriages, dowry and infanticide.
(C) Holiday packages include all sorts of topics but female infanticide must be first for tourism.
(D) Interspersed with these talks and meetings are visits to cities like New Delhi and Agra, home to the Taj Mahal.
(a) ACBD       (b) CDBA       (c) ADBC       (d) CABD

55. (A) Something magical is happening to our planet.
(B) Some are calling it paradigm shift.
(C) it’s getting smaller.
(D) Others call it business transformation.
(a) ABDC       (b) ACDB       (c) ABCD       (d) ACBD
Directions (Qs.56-65): In each of the following questions four sentences are given between the sentences numbered 1 and 6. You are required to arrange the four sentences so that all six together make a logical paragraph.
56. 1. It doesn’t take a highly esteemed medical expert to conclude that women handle pain better than men.
(A) First the men would give birth and then take six months to recover.
(B) As for labour pains the human species would become extinct if men had to give birth.
(C) They do, however, make life hell for everyone else with their non-stop complaining about how bad they feel.
(D) The men in my life including my husband and my father would not take a Tylenol for pain even if their lives depend on it.
6. And by the time they finish sharing their excruciating experience with their buddies all reproduction would come to a halt.
(a) ABDC       (b) DCBA       (c) CDBA       (d) BACD

57. 1. A few years ago hostility towards Japanese-Americans was so strong that I thought they were going to reopen the detention camps here in Kolkata.
(A) Today Asians are a success story.
(B) I cannot help making a comparison to the anti-Jewish sentiment in Nazi Germany when Jewish people were successful in business.
(C) But do people applaud President Clinton for improving foreign trade with Asia?
(D) Now, talk about the ‘Arknsas-Asia Connection’ is broadening that hatred to include all Asian-Americans.
6. No, blinded by jealous, they complain that it is the Asian-American who are reaping the wealth.
(a) DBAC       (b) ABDC       (c) DABC       (d) ACBD

58. 1. Michael Jackson, clearly no admirer of long engagements, got married abruptly for the second time in three years.
(A) The latest wedding took place in a secret midnight ceremony in Sydney, Australia.
(B) It is also the second marriage for the new missus about whom little is known.
(C) The wedding was attended by groom’s entourage and staff, according to Jackson’s publicist.
(D) The bride, 37-years old Debbie Rowe, who is carrying Jackson’s baby, wore white.
6. All that is known is that she is a nurse for Jackson’s dermatologist.
(a) ACDB       (b) BDCA       (c) DABC       (d) CDBA

59. 1. Liz Taylor isn’t just unlucky in love.
(A) She, and husband Larry Fortensky, will have to pay the tab-$4,32,600 in court costs.
(B) The duo claimed that a 1993 story about a property dispute damaged their reputation.
(C) Taylor has just filed a defamation suit against the National Enquirer.
(D) She is unlucky in law too.
6. Alas, all levels of the California court system disagreed.
(a) CDAB       (b) DCAB       (c) DABC       (d) CDBA

60. 1. Hiss was serving as Head of the Endowment on August 3, 1948, when Whittaker Chambers reluctantly appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee.
(A) Chambers, a portly rumpled man with a melodramatic style, had been Communist courier but had broken with the party in 1938.
(B) when Nixon arranged a meeting of the two men in New York, Chambers repeated his charges and Hiss his denials.
(C) summoned as a witness, Hiss denied that he had ever been a Communist or had known Chambers.
(D) he told the Committee that among the members of a secret Communist cell in Washington during 1930s was Hiss.
6. Then, bizarrely, Hiss asked Chambers to open his mouth.
(a) CBAD       (b) ADBC       (c) ADCB       (d) ACDB

61. 1. since its birth, rock has produced a long sting of guitar heroes.
(A) it is a list that would begin with Chuck Berry and continue with Hendrix, Page and Clapton.
(B) these are musicians celebrated for their sheer instrumental talent, and their flair for expansive, showy and sometimes self indulgent solos.
(C) it would also include players of more recent vintage, like Van-Halen and Living Colour’s Vemon Ried.
(D) but with the advent of alternative rock and grunge, guitar heroism became uncool.
6. guitarists like Peter Buck and Kurt Cobain shy away from exhibitionism.
(a) ACBD       (b) ABCD       (c) BCAD       (d) BADC

62. 1. for many scientists oceans are the cradle of life.
(A) but all over the world chemical products and nuclear waste continue to be damped into them.
(B) coral reefs, which are known to be the most beautiful places of the submarine world are fast disappearing.
(C) The result is that many species of fish die because of this pollution.
(D) Of course man is the root cause behind these problems.
6. man has long since ruined the places he visits – continents and oceans alike.
(a) ACBD       (b) BACD       (c) ABDC       (d) BCAD

63. 1. am I one of the people who are worried that Bill Clinton’s second term might be destroyed by the constitutional crisis?
(A) On the other hand, ordinary citizens have put the campaign behind them.
(B) in other words, what worries me is that Bill Clinton could exhibit a version of what George Bush used to refer to crisis.
(C) that is he might have so much campaign momentum that he may not able to stop campaigning.
(D) well, it is true that I’ve been wondering whether a President could be impeached for refusing to stop talking about the bridge we need to build to the 21st century.
6. they now prefer to watch their favorite soaps and ads on TV rather than senators.
(a) DBCA       (B) ABDC       (c) BACD       (d) CBDA

64. 1. So how big is the potential market?
(A) But they end up spending thousands more each year on hardware overhaul and software up gradation.
(B) analysts say the new machines will appeal primarily to corporate sectors.
(C) An individual buyer can pick a desktop computer for less than $2,000 in America.
(D) for them, the NCs best drawing card is its promise of much lower maintenance costs.
6. NCs which automatically load the latest version of whatever software they need could put an end to all that.
(a) BCAD       (b) DABC       (c) BDCA       (d) DCAB

65. 1. Historically, stained glass was almost entirely reserved for ecclesiastical spaces.
(A) By all counts, he has accomplished that mission with unmistakable style.
(B) “It is my mission to bring it kicking and screaming out of that milieu”, says Clarke.
(C) the first was the jewel-like windows he designed for a Cistercian Church in Switzerland.
(D) two recent projects show his genius in the separate worlds of the sacred and the mundane.
6. the second was a spectacular, huge skylight in a shopping complex in Brazil.
(a) CBAD       (b) BADC       (c) ABDC       (d) DBAC

Directions (Qs. 66-75): arrange sentences A, B, C and D in a proper sequence so as to make a coherent paragraph.
66. (A) it begins with an ordinary fever and a moderate cough.
(B) India could be under attack from a class of germs that cause what are called typical pneumonias.
(C) slowly a sore throat progresses to bronchitis and then pneumonia and respiratory complications.
(D) ita appears like the ordinary flu but baffled doctors fimd that the usual drugs don’t work.
(a) ABCD       (b) BDAC       (c) ADCB       (d) BCDA

67. (A) chemists mostly don’t stock it: only a few government hospitals do but in limited quantities.
(B) Delhi’s building boom is creating a bizarre: snakes are increasingly biting people as they emerge from their disturbed underground homes.
(C) there isn’t enough anti-snake serum largely because there is no centralized agency that distributes the product.
(D) if things don’t improve more people could face parsalysis and even death.
(a) BCAD       (b) DBCA       (c) ABCD       (d) CABD

68. (A) but the last decade has witnessed greater voting and political participation by various privileged sections.
 (B) if one goes by the earlier record of mid term elections, it is likely that the turnout in 1998 will drop by anything between four and six percentage points over the already low polling of 58 percent in 1996.
(C) if this trend offsets the mid-term poll fatigue, the fall may not be so steep.
(D) notwithstanding a good deal of speculation on this issue it is still not clear as to who benefits from a lower turnout.
(a) BACD       (b) ABCD       (c) DBAC       (d) CBDA

69. (A) after several routine elections, there comes a ‘critical’ election which redefines the basic pattern of political loyalties, redraws political geography and opens up political space.
(B) in psephological jargon, they call it realignment.
(C) rather since 1989 there have been a series of semi-critical elections.
(D) on a strict definition none of the recent Indian elections qualifies as a critical election.
(a) ABCD       (b) ABDC       (c) DBAC       (d) DCBA

70. (A) trivial pursuits marketed by the Congress is a game imported from Italy.
(B) the idea is to create an imaginary saviour in times of crisis so that the party doesn’t fall flat on its collective face.
(C) closest contenders are Mani Shankar Aiyar who still hears his Master’s Voice and V. George who is frustrated by the fact that his political future remains Sonia and yet so far.
(D) the current champion is Arjun for whom all roads  lead to Rome or in this case 10 Janpath.
(a) ABDC       (b) ABCD       (c) DCBA       (d) CDBA

71. (A) good advertising can make people buy your products even if it sucks.
 (B) A dollar spent on brainwashing is more cost-effective than a dollar spent on product improvement.
(C) that’s important because it takes pressure off you to make good politics.
(D) obviously, there’s a minimum quality that every product has to achieve, it should be able to withstand the shipping process without becoming unrecognizable.
(a) BACD       (b) ACBD       (c) ADCB       (d) BCDA

72. (A) almost a century ago, when the father of the modern automobile industry, Henry Ford, sold the first model T car, he decided that only the best would do for his customers.
(B) Today, it is committed to delivering the finest quality with over six million vehicles a year in over 200 countries across the world.
(C) and for over ninety years this philosophy has endured in the Ford Motor Company.
(D) thus, a vehicle is ready for the customer only if it passes the Ford ‘Zero Defect Programme’.
(a) ABCD       (b) ACDB       (c) ACBD       (d) CDAB

73. (A) But, clearly, the government still has the final say.
(B) In the past few years, the Reserve Bank of India might have wrested considerable powers from the government when it comes to monetary policy.
(C) the RBI’s announcements on certain issues become effective only after the government notifies them.
(D) isn’t it time the government vested the RBI with powers to sanction such changes, leaving their ratification for later?
(a) ACDB       (b) ACBD       (c) BACD       (d) DACB

74. (A) I sat there frowning at the checkered table-cloth, chewing the bitter cud of insight.
(B) That wintry afternoon in Manhattan, waiting in the little French restaurant, I was feeling frustrated and depressed.
(C) even the prospect of seeing a dear friend failed to cheer me as it usually did.
(D) because of certain miscalculations on my part, a project of considerable importance in my life had fallen through.
(a) ADBC       (b) BCDA       (c) BDCA       (d) ABCD

75. (A) perhaps the best known is the Bay Area Writing Project founded by James Gray in 1974.
(B) the decline in writing skills can be stopped.
(C) today’s back-to-basics movement has already forced some schools to place renewed emphasis on the three Rs.
(D) although the inability of some teachers to teach writing successfully remains a big stumbling block, a number of programmes have been developed to attack this problem.
(a) BCDA       (b) ADCB       (c) ACBD       (d) CABD

Directions (Qs. 76-80): arrange sentences A, B, C and D between sentences 1 and 6, so as to form a logical sequence of six sentences.
 76. 1. whenever technology has flowered, it has put man’s language – developing skills into overdrive.
(A) technical terms are spilling into the main stream almost as fast as junk-mail is slapped into e-mail boxes.
(B) the era of computers is no less.
(C) from the wheel with its axle to the spinning wheel with its bobbins to the compact disc and its jewel boxes inventions have trailed new words in their wake.
(D) “Cyberslang is huge but it’s parochial, and we don’t know what will filter into the large culture,” said Tom Dalzell, who wrote slang dictionary ‘Flappers 2 Rappers’.
6. some slangs already have a pedigree.
(a) BCAD       (b) CBAD       (c) ABCD       (d) DBCA

77. 1. until the MBA arrived on the scene the IIT graduate was king.
(A) a degree from one of the five IITs was a passport to a well-playing job, great prospects abroad and for some a decent dowry to boot.
(B) from the day he or she cracked the Joint Entrance Examination, the IIT student commanded the awe of neighbours and close relatives.
(C) IIT students had, meanwhile, also developed their own special culture, complete with lingo and attitude, which they passed down.
(D) true, the success stories of IIT graduates are legion and they now constitute the cream of the Indian diaspora.
6. but not many alumni would agree that the IIT undergraduate mindset merits a serious psychological study, lat alone an interactive one.
(a) BACD       (b) ABCD       (c) BADC       (d) ABDC

78. 1. some of the maharajas, like the one at Kapurthala, had exquisite taste.
(A) in 1902, the Maharaja of Kapurthala gave his civil engineer photographs of the Versailles Place and asked him to replicate it right down to the gargoyles.
(B) Yeshwantrao Hollkar of Indore brought in Bauhaus aesthetics and even works of modern artists like Brancusi and Duchamp.
(C) Kitsch is the most polite way to describe them.
(D) but many of them as the available light photographs show had execrable taste.
6. like Ali Baba’s caves some of the palaces were like warehouses with the downright ugly next to the sublimely aesthetic.
(a) BACD       (b) BDCA       (c) ABCD       (d) ABDC

79. 1. there, in Europe, his true gifts unveiled.
(A) playing with Don Cherie, blending Indian music and jazz for the first time, he began setting the pace in the late 70s for much of present-day fusion is.
(B) John McLaughlin, the legendary guitarist whose soul has always had an Indian stamp on it, was seduced immediately.
(C) fusion by Gurtu had begun.
(D) he partnered Gurtu for four years, and ‘natured’ him as a composer.
6. but for every experimental musician ‘there’ a critic nestling nearby.
(a) ABCD       (b) BCAD       (c) ADBC       (d) ABDC

80. 1. India, which has two out of every five TB patients in the world is on the brink of a major public health disaster.
(A) if untreated, a TB patient can die within five years.
(B) unlike AIDS the great curse of modern sexuality the TB germ is airborne which means there are no barriers to its spread.
(C) the dreaded infection ranks fourth among major killers worldwide.
(D) every minute a patient falls prey to the infection in India which means that over five lakh people die of the disease annually.
6. anyone, anywhere can be affected by this disease.
(a) CADB       (b) BACD       (c) ABCD       (d) DBAC

Directions (Qs. 81-91): in each of the following questions, a paragraph has been split into four parts. You have to rearrange these parts to form a coherent paragraph.
81. (A) he was carrying his jacket and walked with his head thrown back.
(B) as Anette neared the lamp she saw a figure walking slowly.
(C) for a while Michael walked on and she followed 20 paces behind.
(D) with a mixture of terror and triumph of recognition she slackened her pace.
(a) ABCD       (b) BADC       (c) BCDA       (d) ACBD

82. (A) however, the real challenge today is in learning which is much harder.
(B) but the new world of business behaves differently from the world in which we grew up.
(C) learning is important for both people and organizations.
(D) each of us has ‘mental model’ that we’ve used over the years to make sense.
(a) CADB       (b) BDAC       (c) CDAB       (d) ACBD

83. (A) there was nothing quite like a heavy downpour of rain to make life worthwhile.
(B) we reached the field, soaked to the skin, and surrounded it.
(C) the wet as far as he was concerned was ideal.
(D) there, sure enough, stood Claudius, looking like a debauched Roman emperor under a shower.
(a) DCBA       (b) BDAC       (c) BADC       (d) BACD

84. (A) alex had never been happy with his Indian origins.
(B) he set about rectifying this grave injustice by making his house in his own image of a country manor.
(C) fate had been unfair to him; if he had his wish, he would have been a court or an Earl on some English estate, or a medieval monarch in a chateau in France.
(D) this illusion of misplaced grandeur, his wife felt, would be Alex’ undoing.
(a) ACDB       (b) ABDC       (c) ACBD       (d) CABD

85. (A) the influence is reflected the most in beaded evening wear.
(B) increasingly the influence of India’s colour and cuts can be seen on western styles.
(C) and even as Nehru jackets and Jodhpurs remain staples  of the fashion world, designers such as Armani and Mc Fadden have turned to the sleek silhouette of the churidar this year.
(D) Indian hot pink, paprika and saffron continue to be popular colours, year in and year out.
(a) BADC       (b) ABCD       (c) BCAD       (d) DABC

86. (A) such a national policy will surely divide and never unite the people.
(B) in fact, it suits the purpose of the politicians; they can drag the people into submission by appealing to them in the name of religion.
(C) in order to inculcate the unquestioning belief they condemn the other states, which do not follow their religion.
(D) the emergence of the theocratic states where all types of crimes are committed in the name of religion, has revived the religion of the Middle Ages
(a) ABCD       (b) DBCA       (c) DBAC       (d) CDAB

87. (A) his left-hand concealed a blackjack, his right-hand groped for the torch in his pocket.
(B) the meeting was scheduled for 0 O’clock, and his watch showed the time to be a quarter to nine.
(C) the man lurked in the corner, away from the glare of light.
(D) his heart thumped in his chest, sweat beads formed themselves on his forehead his mouth was dry.
(a) CABD       (b) BDAC       (c) BADC       (d) ABCD

88. (A) the director walked into the room and took a look around the class.
(B) Mitch wanted to scream – the illogicality of the entire scene struck him dumb.
(C) the managers started at him with the look of fear that no democratic country should tolerate in his people.
(D) he walked out of the room – it was his irrevocable protest against an insensible and insensitive situation.
(a) ACBD       (b) BDAC       (c) BCAD       (d) ABCD      

89. (A) the establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of events which culminated in war between Germany and United States.
(B) the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with a belligerence or loans to them.
(C) while speaking out against Hitler’s atrocities, the American people generally favoured isolationist policies and neutrality.
(D) the complete destruction of democracy, the persecution of jews, the war on religion, the cruelty and barbarism of the allies, caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of another world war.
(a) ABCD       (b) CBDA       (c) CDBA       (d) ADCB

90. (A) an essay which appeals chiefly to the intellect is Francis Bacon’s Of Solitude.
(B) his careful tripartite division of studies expressed succinctly in aphoristic prose demands the complete attention of the mind of the reader.
(C) he considers studies as they should be; for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business.
(D) he considers the evils of excess study: laziness, affectation and preciosity.
(a) DCBA       (b) ABCD       (c) CDBA       (d) ACBD

91. (A) by reasoning we mean the mental process of drawing an inference from two or more statements or going from the inference to the statements, which yield that inference.
(B) so logical reasoning covers those types of questions, which imply drawing as inference from the problems.
(C) logic means, if we take its original meaning, the science of valid reasoning.
(D) Clearly, for understanding arguments and for drawing the inference correctly, it is necessary that we should understand the statements first.
(a) ACBD       (b) CABD       (c) ABCD       (d) DBCA

Directions (Qs. 92-96): Arrange sentences A,B, C and D between sentences numbered 1 and 6 to form a logical sequence of six sentences.
92. 1. Buddhism is a way to salvation.
(A) but Buddhism is more severely analytical.
(B) in the Christian tradition, there is also a concern for the fate of human society conceived as a whole, rather than merely as a sum or network of individuals.
(C) salvation is a property, or achievement of individuals.
(D) not only does it dissolve society into individuals, the individual in turn is dissolved into component parts and instants a stream of events.
6. in modern terminology, Buddhist doctrine is reductionist.
(a) ABDC       (b) CBAD       (c) BDAC       (d) ABCD

93. 1. The problem of improving Indian agriculture is both a sociological and an administrative one.
(A) It also appears that there is a direct relationship between the size of a state and development.
(B) The issues of Indian development and the problem of India’s agricultural sector, will remain with us long into the next century.
(C) Without improving Indian agriculture, no liberalization and licensing will be able to help India.
(D) At the end of the day, there has to be a ferment and movement of life and action in the vast segment of rural India.
6. When it starts marching, India will fly.
(a) DABC       (b) CDBA       (c) ACDB       (d) ABCD

94. 1. Good literary magazines have always been good because of their editors.
(A) Furthermore to edit by committee, as it were, would prevent any magazine from finding its own identity.
(B) The more quirky and idiosyncratic they have been, the better the magazine is, at least as a general rule.
(C) But the number of editors one can have for a magazine should also be determined by the number of contributions to it.
(D) To have four editors for an issue that contains only seven contributions it is a bit silly to start with.
6. However, in spite of this anomaly, the magazine does acquire merit in its attempt to give a comprehensive view of the Indian literary scene as it is today.
(a) ABCD       (b) BCDA       (c) ABDC       (d) CBAD

95. 1. It is successful story of the Indian expartriate in the US which today hogs much of the media coverage in India.
(A) East and west, the twain has met quite comfortably in their person, thank you.
(B) Especially in it’s more recent romancing-the-NRI phase.
(C) Seldom does the price of getting there – more like not getting there – or what’s going on behind those sunny smiles get so much media hype.
(D) Well-groomed with their perfect Colgate smiles, and hair in place, they appear the picture of confidence which comes from having arrived.
6. The festival of features films and documentaries made by Americans of India descent being screened this fortnight, goes a long way in filling those gaps.
(a) ACBD       (b) DABC       (c) BDAC       (d) ABCD

96. 1. A market for Indian art has existed ever since the international art scene sprang to life.
(A) But interest in architectural conceits is unanticipated fallout of the festivals of India of the 80s, which were designed to increase exports of Indian crafts.
(B) Simultaneously, the Indian elite discarded their synthetic sarees and kitsch plastic furniture and a market came into being.
(C) Western dealers, unhappy in a market afflicted by violent price fluctuations and unpredictable profit margins, began to look east, and found cheap antiques with irresistible appeal.
(D) The fortunes of the Delhi supremos, the Jew Town dealers in Cochin and myriad others around the country were made.
6. A chain of command was established, from the local contacts to the provincial dealers and up to the big boys, who entertain the Italians and the French, cutting deals worth lakhs in warehouses worth crores.
(a) ABCD       (b) DCAB       (c) CBAD       (d) CABD

Directions (Qs. 97-101): Arrange the sentences A, B, C and D to form a logical sequence between sentences 1 to 6.
97. 1. Making people laugh is tricky.
(A) At times, the intended humour may simply not come off.
(B) Making people laugh while trying to sell them something is a tougher challenge, since the commercial can fall flat on two grounds.
(C) There are many advertisements which do not even begin to set the cash till ringing.
(D) Again, it is rarely sufficient for an advertiser simply to amuse the target audience in order to reap the sales benefit.
6. There are indications that in substituting the hard sell for a more entertaining approach; some agencies have rather thrown out the baby with the bath water.
(a) CDBA       (b) ABCD       (c) BADC       (d) DCBA

98. 1. Picture a termite colony, occupying a tall mud hump on an African plain.
(A) Hungry predators often invade the colony and unsettle the balance.
(B) The colony flourishes only if the proportion of soldiers to workers remains roughly the same, so that the queen and workers can be protected by the soldiers, and the queen and soldiers can be serviced by the workers.
(C) But its fortunes are presently restored, because the immobile queen, walled in well below the ground level, lays eggs not only in large enough numbers, but also in varying proportions required.
(D) The hump is alive with worker termites and soldier termites going about their distinct kinds of business.
6. How can we account for mysterious ability to respond like this to events on distant surface?
(a) BADC       (b) DBAC       (c) ADCB       (d) BDCA

99. 1. According to recent research, the critical period for developing language skills is between the age of three and five years.
(A) The read-to child already has a large vocabulary and a sense of grammar and sentences structure.
(B) Children who are read-to in these years have a far better chance of reading well in school, indeed, of doing well in all their subjects.
(C) And the reason is actually quite simple.
(D) This correlation is far and away the highest yet found between home influences and school success.
6. Their comprehension of language is therefore very high.
(a) DACB       (b) ADCB       (c) ABCD       (d) BDCA

100. 1. High-powered outboard motors are considered to be one of the major threats to the survival of the Beluga whales.
(A) With these, hunters could approach Belugas within hunting range and profit from its inner skin and blubber.
(B) To escape an approaching motor, Belugas have learned to dive the ocean bottom and stay there for up to 20 min., by which time the confused predator has left.
(C) Today, however, even with much more powerful engines, it is difficult to come close, because the whales seem to disappear suddenly just when you thought you had them in your sights.
(D) When the first outboard engines arrived in early 1930s, one came across 4 and 5 HP motors.
6. Belugas seem to have used their well-known sensitivity to noise to evolve an ‘avoidance’ strategy to outsmart hunters and their powerful technologies.
(a) DACB       (b) ACDB       (c) ADCB       (d) DBAC

101. 1. The reconstruction of history by post-revolutionary science text involves more than a multiplication of historical misconstruction.
(A) Because they aim quickly to acquaint the student with what the contemporary scientific community thinks it knows, text books treat the various experiment, concepts, laws and theories of the current normal science as separately and as nearly seriatim as possible.
(B) Those misconstructions render revolution invisible; the arrangement of the still visible material in science texts implies a process that, if it existed, would deny revolutions a function.
(C) But when combined with the generally unhistorical air of science writing and with the occasional systematic misconstruction, one impression is likely to follow.
(D) As pedagogy, this technique of presentation is unexceptional.
6. Science has reached its present state by a series of individual discoveries and inventions that, when gathered together, constitute the modern body of technical knowledge.
(a) BADC       (b) ADCB       (c) DACB       (d) CBDA

Directions (Qs. 102-106): Sentence given in each question when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
102. (A) we lived in a succession of small towns in the south, never remaining at the same address for more than two years.
(B) In my case, I think it was a combination of family circumstances and physical peculiarities.
(C) I have often been asked what attracts someone to myrmecology, the study of ant biology.
(D) My father, a federal accountant, was exceptionally peripatetic.
(a) CBDA       (b) CADB       (c) CBAD       (d) DABC

103. (A) Group decision making, however, does not necessarily fully guard against arbitrariness and anarchy, for individual capriciousness can get substituted by collision of group members.
(B) Nature itself is an intricate system of checks and balances, meant to preserve the delicate balance between various environmental factors that affect our ecology.
(C) In institutions also, there is a need to have in place a system of checks and balances which inhibits the concentration of power in the hands of only some individuals.
(D) When human interventions alter this delicate balance, the outcomes have been seen to be disastrous.
(a) CDAB       (b) BCAD       (c) CABD       (d) BDCA

104. (A) He was bone-weary and soul-weary, and found himself muttering, “Either I can’t manage this place, or it’s unmanageable.”
(B) To his horror, he realized that he had become the victim of an amorphous, unwitting, unconscious conspiracy to immerse him in routine work that had no significance.
(C) It was one of those nights in the office when the office clock was moving towards four in the morning and Bennis was still not through with the incredible mass of paper stacked before him.
(D) He reached for his calendar and ran his eyes down each hour, half hour, and quarter hour, to see where his time had gone that day, the day before, the month before.
(a) ABCD       (b) CADB       (c) BDCA       (d) DCBA

105. (A) With that, I swallowed the shampoo, and obtained the most realistic results almost on the spot.
(B) The man shuffled away into the back regions to make up prescription, and after a moment I got through on the shop–telephone to the consulate, intimating my location.
(C) Then, while the pharmacist was wrapping up a six-ounce bottle of a mixture, I groaned and inquired whether he could give something for acute gastric cramp.
(D) I intended to stage a sharp gastric attack, and entering an old-fashioned pharmacy, I asked for a popular shampoo mixture, consisting of olive oil and flaked soap.
(a) DCBA       (b) DACB       (c) BDAC       (d) BCDA

106. (A) Since then, intelligence tests have been mostly used to separate dull children in school from average or bright children, so that the special education can be provided to the dull.
(B) In other words, intelligence tests give us a norm for each age.
(C) Intelligence is expressed as intelligence quotient and tests and developed to indicate what an average child of a certain age can do…. What a five-year-old can answer, but a four-year-old cannot, for instance.
(D) Binet developed the first set of such tests in the early 1990s to find out which children in school needed special attention.
(E) Intelligence can be measured by tests.
(a) CDABE     (b) DECAB     (c) EDACB     (d) CBADE

Directions (Qs.107-111): The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
107. (A) If caught in the act, they were punished, not for the crime, but for allowing themselves to be caught another lash of the whip.
(B) The bellicose Spartans sacrificed all the finer things in life for military expertise.
(C) Those fortunate enough to survive babyhood were taken away from their mothers at the age of seven to undergo rigorous military training.
(D) This consisted mainly of beatings and deprivations of all kinds like going around barefoot in winter, and worse, starvation so that they would be forced to steal food to survive.
(E) Male children were examined at birth by the city council and those deemed too weak to become soldiers were left to die of exposure.
(a) BECDA     (b) ECADB     (c) BCDAE     (d) ECDAB

108. (A) This very instability of the photographing eye changes the terms of confinement in the cave, our world.
(B) Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato’s cave, still revelling, its age old habit, in mere images of truth.
(C) But being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older images drawn by hand; for one thing, there are a great many more images around, claiming your attention.
(D) The inventory started in 1839 and since then just about everything has been photographed, or so it seems.
(E) In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking and what we have a right to observe.
(a) EABCD     (b) BDEAC     (c) BCDAE     (d) ECDAB

109. (A) To be culturally literate is to possess the basic information needed to thrive in the modern world.
(B) Nor is it confined to one social class; quite the contrary.
(C) It is by no means confined to ‘culture’ narrowly understood as an acquaintance with the arts.
(D) Cultural literacy constitutes the only sure avenue of opportunity for disadvantaged children, the only reliable way of combating the social determinism that now condemns them.
(E) The breadth of that information is great, extending over the major domains of human activity from sports to science.
(a) AECBD     (b) DECBA     (c) ACBED     (d) DBCAE

110. (A) Both parties use capital and labour in the struggle to secure property rights.
(B) The thief spends time and money in his attempt to steal (he buys wire cutters) and the legitimate property owner expends resources to prevent the theft.(he buys locks)
(C) A social cost of theft is that both the thief and potential victim use resources to gain or maintain control over property.
(D) These costs may escalate as a type of technological arms race unfolds.
(E) A bank may purchase more and more complicated and sophisticated safes, forcing safecrackers to invest further in safecracking equipment.
(a) ABCDE     (b) CABDE     (c) ACBED     (d) CBEDA

111. (A) The likelihood of an accident is determined by how carefully the motorist drives and how carefully the pedestrian crosses the street.
(B) An accident involving a motorist and a pedestrian is such a case.
(C) Each must decide how much care to exercise without knowing how careful the other is.
(D) The simplest strategic problem arises when two individuals interact with each other, and each must decide what to do without knowing what the other is doing.
(a) ABCD       (b) ADCB       (c) DBCA       (d) DBAC

Directions (Qs. 112-116): Sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. The first and last sentences are 1 and 6, and the four in between are labeled A, B, C and D. Choose the most logical order of these four sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph from sentences 1 to 6.
112. 1. Security inks exploit the same principle that causes the vivid and constantly changing colours of a film of oil on water.
(A) When two rays of light meet each other after being reflected from these different surfaces, they have each traveled slightly different distances.
(B) The key is that the light is bouncing of two surfaces, that of the oil and that of the water layer below it.
(C) The distance the two rays travel determines which wavelengths, and hence colours, interfere constructively and look bright.
(D) Because lights, an electromagnetic wave, the peaks and troughs of each ray then interfere constructively, to appear bright, or destructively, to appear dim.
6. Since the distance the rays travel changes with the angle as you look at the surface, different colours look bright from different viewing angles.
(a) ABCD       (b) BADC       (c) BDAC       (d) DCAB

113. 1. Commercially reared chicken can be unusually aggressive, and are often kept in darkened sheds to prevent the pecking at each other.
(A) The birds spent far more of their time – up to a third – pecking at the inanimate objects in the pens, in contrast to birds in other pens which spent a lot of time attacking others.
(B) In low light conditions, they behave less belligerently, but are more prone to ophthalmic disorders and respiratory problems.
(C) In an experiment, aggressive head-pecking was all but eliminated among birds in the enriched environment.
(D) Altering the birds’ environment, by adding bales of wood-shavings to their pens, can work wonders.
6. Bales could diminish aggressiveness and reduce injuries; they might even improve productivity, since a happy chicken is a productive chicken.
(a) DCAB       (b) CDBA       (c) DBAC       (d) BDCA

114. 1. The concept of a ‘nation-state’ assumes a complete correspondence between the boundaries of the nation and the boundaries of those who live in a specific state.
(A) Then, there are members of national collectivities who live in other countries, making a mockery of the concept.
(B) There are always people living in particular states who are not considered to be (and often do not consider themselves to be) members of hegemonic nation.
(C) Even worse, there are nations which never had a state or which are divided across several states.
(D) Thus, of course, has been subject to severe criticism and is virtually everywhere a fiction.
6. However, the fiction has been, and continues to be, at the basis of nationalist ideologies.
(a) DBAC       (b) ABCD       (c) BACD       (d) DACB

115. 1. In the sciences, even questionable examples of research fraud are harshly punished.
(A) But no such mechanism exists in the humanities – much of what humanities researchers call research does not lead to results that are replicable by other scholars.
(B) Given the importance of interpretation in historical and literary scholarship, humanities researchers are in a position where they can explain away deliberate and even systematic distortion.
(C) Mere suspicion is enough for funding to be cut off; publicity guarantees that careers can be effectively ended.
(D) Forgeries which take the form of pastiches in which the forger intersperses fake and real parts can be defended as mere mistakes or aberrant misreading.
6. Scientists fudging data have no such defences.
(a) BDCA       (b) ABDC       (c) CABD       (d) CDBA

116. 1. Horses and communism was, on the whole, a poor match.
(A) Fine horses bespoke the nobility the party was supposed to despise.
(B) Communist leaders, when they visited villages, preferred to see cows and pigs.
(C) Although a working horse was just about tolerable, the communists were right to be wary.
(D) Peasants from Poland to the Hungarian Pustza preferred their horses to party dogma.
6. “A farmer’s pride is his horse; his cow may be thin but his horse must be fat”, went a Slovak saying.
(a) ACDB       (b) DBCA       (c) ABCD       (d) DCBA

Directions (Qs. 117-126): The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a paragraph.
117. (A) Branded disposable disappears are available at many supermarkets and drug stores.
(B) If one supermarket sets a higher price for a diper, customers may buy that brand elsewhere.
(C) By contrast, the demand for private-label products may be less price sensitive since it is available only at our corresponding supermarket chain.
(D) So, the demand for branded diapers at any particular store may be quite price sensitive.
(E) For instance, only Save On Drugs store sell Save On Drugs diapers.
(F) Then, stores should set a higher incremental margin percentage for private label diapers.
(a) ABCDEF    (b) ABCEDF    (c) ADBCEF    (d) AEDBCF

118. (A) Having a strategy is a matter of discipline.
(B) It involves the configuration of a tailored value chain that enables a company to offer unique value.
(C) It requires a strong focus on profitability and a willingness to make tough tradeoffs in choosing what not to do.
(D) Strategy goes far beyond the pursuit of best practices.
(E) A company must stay the course even during time of upheaval, while constantly improving and extending its distinctive positioning.
(F) When a company’s activities fit together as a self-reinforcing system, any competitor wishing to imitate a strategy must replicate the whole system.
(a) ACEDBF    (b) ACBDEF    (c) DCBEFA    (d) ABCEDF

119. (A) As officials, their vision of a country shouldn’t run too far beyond that of the local people with whom they have to deal.
(B) Ambassadors have to choose their words.
(C) To say what they feel they have to say, they appear to be denying or ignoring part of what they know,
(D) So, with ambassadors as with other expatriates in black Africa, there appears at a first meeting a kind of ambivalence.
(E) They do a specialized job and it is necessary for them to live ceremonial lives.
(a) BCEDA     (b) BEDAC     (c) BEADC     (d) BCDEA

120. (A) “This face off will continue for several months given the strong convictions on either side,” says a senior functionary of the high-powdered task force on drought.
(B) During the past week-and-half, the Central Government has sought to deny some of the earlier apprehensions over the impact of drought.
(C) The recent revival of the rains has led to the emergence of a line of divide between the two.
(D) The state governments, on the other hand allege that the Centre is downplaying the crisis only to evade its full responsibility of financial assistance that is required to alleviate the damage.
(E) Shrill alarm about the economic impact on an inadequate monsoon had been sounded by the Centre as well as most of the states, in late July and early August.
(a) EBCDA     (b) DBACE     (c) BDCAE     (d) ECBDA

121. (A) This fact was established in the 1730s by French survey expeditions to equator near the equator  and Lapland in the Artic, which found that around the middle of the earth the arc was about a kilometer shorter.
(B) One of the unsettled scientific questions in the late 18th century was the exact nature of the shape of the earth.
(C) The length of one-degree arc would be less near the equatorial altitudes that at the poles.
(D) one way of doing what is to determine the length of the arc along a chosen longitude or meridian at one degree latitude separation.
(E) While it was generally known that the earth was not a sphere but an ‘oblate spheroid’ more curved at the equator and flatter at the poles, the question of ‘how much more’ was yet to be established.
(a) BECAD     (b) BEDCA     (c) BDACE     (d) EBDCA

122. (A) Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing.
(B) Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment.
(C) While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.
(D) Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual.
(E) Work is not intrinsically valued in India.
(F) Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours.
(a) ECADBF    (b) EADCFB    (c) EADBFC    (d) ABFCBE

123. (A) But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.
(B) So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is burn his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.
(C) Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.
(D) How do you do battle with your enemy?
(E) The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case.
(F) With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy.
(a) FDEBAC    (b) FCABED    (c) DEBACF    (d) DFEBAC

124. (A) Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint.
(B) But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
(C) He acknowledges too – in fact he returns to the point often – translators of poetry always fail at some level.
(D) Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings.
(E) In terms of the gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses and street-cleaners.
(a) EACDB     (b) ADEBC     (c) EACBD     (d) DCEAB

125. (A) Passivity is not, of course, universal.
(B) In areas where there are no lords or laws, or in frontier zones where all men go armed, the attitude of the peasantry may well be different.
(C) So indeed it may be on the fringe of the unsubmissive.
(D) However, for most of the soil-bound peasants, the problem is not whether to be normally passive or active, but when to pass from one state to another.
(E) This depends on an assessment of the political situation.
(a) BEDAC     (b) CDABE     (c) EDBAC     (d) ABCDE

126. (A) The situation in which violence occurs and the nature of that violence tends to be clearly defined at least in theory, as in the proverbial Irishman’s question: ‘Is this a private fight or can anyone join it?’
(B) So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable.
(C) Probably the only uncontrolled applications of force are those of social superiors to social inferiors and even here there are probably some rules.
(D) However binding the obligation to kill, members of feuding families engaged in mutual massacre will be genuinely appalled if by some mischance a bystander or outsider is killed.
(a) DABC       (b) ACDB       (c) CBAD       (d) DBAC

Directions (Qs.127-134): The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
127. (A) To much of the Labour movement, it symbolizes the brutality of the upper classes.
(B) And to everybody watching, the current mess over foxhunting symbolizes the government’s weakness.
(C) To foxhunting’s supporters, Labour’s 1991 manifesto commitment to ban it symbolizes the party’s metropolitan roots and hostility to the countryside.
(D) Small issues sometimes have large symbolic power.
(E) To those who enjoy thundering across the countryside in red coats after foxes, foxhunting symbolizes the ancient roots of rural lives.
(a) DEACB     (b) ECDBA     (c) CEADB     (d) DBAEC

128. (A) In the case of King Merolchazzar’s courtship of the Princess of the Outer Isles, there occurs a regrettable hitch.
(B) She acknowledges the gifts, but no word of a meeting date follows.
(C) The monarch, hearing good reports of a neighbouring princess, dispatches messenger with gifts to her court, beseeching an interview.
(D) The princess names a date, and a formal meeting takes place; after that everything buzzes along pretty smoothly.
(E) Royal love affairs in olden days were conducted on the correspondence method.
(a) ACBDE     (b) ABCDE     (c) ECDAB     (d) ECBAD

129. (A) Who can trace to its first beginnings the love of Damon for Pythias, of David for Jonathon, of Swan for Edgar?
(B) Similarly with men.
(C) There is about great friendships between man and man a certain inevitability that can only be compared with the age old association of ham and egg.
(D) One simply feels that it is one of the things that must be so.
(E) No one can say what was the mutual magnetism that brought the deathless partnership of these wholesome and palatable foodstuffs about.
(a) ACBED     (b) CEDBA     (c) ACEBD     (d) CEABD

130. (A) Events intervened, an in the late 1930s and 1940s, Germany suffered from “over-branding”.
(B) The British used to be fascinated by the home of Romanticism.
(C) But reunification and the federal government’s move to Berlin have prompted Germany to think again about its image.
(D) The first foreign package holiday was a tour of Germany organized by Thomas Cook in 1855.
(E) Since then, Germany has been understandably nervous about promoting itself abroad.
(a) ACEBD     (b) DECAB     (c) BDAEC     (d) DBAEC

131. (A) The wall does not simply divide Israel from a putative Palestinian state on the basis of the 1967 borders.
(B) A chilling omission from the road map is the gigantic ‘separation wall’ now being built in the West Bank by Israel.
(C) It is surrounded by trenches, electric wire and moats; there are watchtowers at regular intervals.
(D) It actually takes in new tracts of Palestinian land, sometimes five or six kilometers at a stretch.
(E) Almost a decade after the end of South African apartheid, this ghastly racist wall is going up with scarcely a peep from Israel’s American allies who are going to pay for most of it.
(a) BCADE     (b) BADCE     (c) AEDCB     (d) ECADB

132. (A) Luckily the tide of battle moved elsewhere after the American victory at Midway and an Australian victory over Japan at Milne Bay.
(B) It could have been no more than a delaying tactic.
(C) The Australian military, knowing the position was hopeless, planned to fall back to the south-east in the hope of defending the main cities.
(D) They had captured most of the Solomon Islands and much of New Guinea and seemed poised for an invasion.
(E) Not many people outside Australia realize how close the Japanese got.
(a) EDCBA     (b) ECDAB     (c) ADCBE     (d) CDBAE

133. (A) Call it the third wave sweeping the Indian media.
(B) Now, they are starring in a new role, as suave dealmakers who are in a hurry to strike alliances and agreements.
(C) Look around and you will find a host of deals that have been inked or are ready to be finalized.
(D) Then the media barons wrested back control from their editors and turned marketing warriors with the brand as their missile.
(E) The first came with those magnificent men in their mahogany chambers who took on the world with their mighty fountain pens.
(a)ACBED      (b) CEBDA     (c) CAEBD     (d) AEDBC

134. (A) the celebrations of economic recovery in Washington may be as premature as that “Mission Accomplished” banner hung on the US Abraham Lincoln to hail the end of the Iraq war.
(B) Meanwhile, in the real world, the struggles of families and communities continue unabated.
(C) Washington responded to the favorable turn in economic news with enthusiasm.
(D) The celebrations and high-fives up and down Pennsylvania Avenue are not to be found beyond the Beltway.
(E) When the third quarter GDP showed growth of 7.2% and the monthly unemployment rate dipped to 6%, euphoria gripped the US capital.
(a) ACEDB     (b) CEDAB     (c) ECABD     (d) ECBDA

Directions (Qs. 135-137): The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a paragraph.
135. (A) He felt justified in bypassing Congress altogether on a variety of moves.
(B) At time he was fighting the entire Congress.
(C) Bush felt he had a mission to restore power to the presidency.
(D) Bush was not fighting just the democrats.
(E) Representative democracy is a messy business, and a CEO of the White House does not like a legislature of second guessers and time wasters.
(a) CAEDB     (b) DBAEC     (c) CEADB     (d) ECDBA

136. (A) The two neighbours never fought with each other.
(B) Fights involving three male fiddler crabs have been recorded, but the status of the participants was unknown.
(C) They pushed or grappled only with the intruder.
(D) We recorded 17 cases in which a resident that was fighting an intruder was joined by an immediate neighbour, an ally.
(E) We therefore tracked 268 intruder males until we saw them fighting a resident male.
(a) BEDAC     (b) DEBAC     (c) BDCAE     (d) BCEDA

137. (A) In the west, Allied Forces had fought their way through southern Italy as far as Rome.
(B) In June 1944 Germany’s military position in World War Two appeared hopeless.
(C) In Britain, the task of amassing the men and materials for the liberation of northern Europe had been completed.
(D) The Red Army was poised to drive the Nazis back through Poland.
(E) The situation on the eastern front was catastrophic.
(a) EDACB     (b) BEDAC     (c) BDECA     (d) CEDAB

Directions (Qs. 138-139): The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
138. (A) But this does not mean that death was the Egyptians’ only preoccupation.
(B) Even papyri come mainly from pyramid temples.
(C) Most of our traditional sources of information about the Old Kingdom are monuments of the rich like pyramid.
(D) Houses in which ordinary Egyptians lived have not been preserved, and when most people died they were buried in simple graves.
(E) We know infinitely more about the wealthy people of Egypt than we do about the ordinary people, as most monuments were made for the rich.
(a) CDBEA     (b) ECDAB     (c) EDCBA     (d) DECAB

139. (A) Experts such as Larry Burns, head of research at GM, reckon that only such a full hearted leap will allow the world to cope with the mass motorization that will one day come to China or India.
(B) But once hydrogen is being produced form biomass or extracted form an underground coal or made from water, using nuclear or renewable electricity, the way will be open for a huge reduction in carbon emissions from the whole system.
(C) In theory, once all the bugs have been sorted out, fuel cells should deliver better total fuel economy than any existing engines.
(D) That is twice as good as the internal combustion engine, but only five percentage points better than a diesel hybrid.
(E) Allowing for the resources needed to extract hydrogen from hydrocarbon, oil, coal or gas, the fuel cell has an efficiency of 30%.
(a) CEDBA     (b) CEBDA     (c) AEDBC     (d) ACEBD















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