Saturday, 27 April 2013

A-Z OF PSYCHOLOGY



PSYCHOLOGY
     -The term psychology is derived from two Greek words:-"psyche" and "logus". Which means soul and science respectively. Thus the literal meaning of psychology is the science of the soul. In the larger sense, psychology is a social science. It deals with cognitive activities like perceiving, thinking, imagining and also emotional experiences. Psychology can also be called as the science of behaviour and experience in relation to the environment. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviours and also to understand it.

SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY
     The domain of psychology has in course of time emerged as one of the important disciplines by widening his scope and being applicable to different fields of human endeavors such as employment, industrial activities, education, and personality problem, treatment of mental and educational problems. These are explained in brief:-
1) Organizational
        -It is also known as industrial psychology. It means to provide the way to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business organization while solving the organizational problems.
2) Social
        -It is meant to help the people by solving their social problems. It is focused on the role of society and how it can influence in the development of one's personality.
3) Clinical
        -It deals with mental, emotional and abnormal behaviorist helps people to come out from their mental disorder by psychotherapy.
4) Educational
        -it deals with how an individual learns through educational settings. It is concerned with educational and teaching methodologies and processes.

OBSERVATIONAL METHOD OF PSYCHOLOGY

1) Naturalistic observation
        -It is named in an environment which is uncontrolled and unrestricted but natural and unplanned.
            e.g:-5 year old child returns home from school with the hope to see a cartoon but when he switches on the TV with eagerness, he found it blank. He shows anger by throwing things, shouting or rolling on the floor.
2) Participant observation
        -Here the observer actually takes part with the person who is observed in a particular act and observes his behavior.
            e.g.:-A representative of the management participants in the GD and also observes their normal responses and actions.
3) Non-participant observation
        -It is opposite to participant observation. In this method, the observer does not participate in the activities of the subject being studied but he tries to observe the behavior from an observable distance or through one-way vision.
            e.g.:- adperson becoming anxious and shaking his legs, sweating profusely. Now this can be observed by non-participating members in the process through some means.

**) QUALITATIVE METHODS
A) Film-study method
        -Investigator goes to the actual environment with a set of questions and observes accordingly to obtain clear understanding and spontaneous responses of the subject. The investigator joins day to day life of the subject.
            e.g:-govt. census
b) Experimental method
        -It is the most highly developed, formalized and accurate of all scientific methods. Here the observation is made under no natural conditions but artificially concluded conditions in the lab. There all factors are kept constant; only one factor is varied at a time to determine the effect of the variable on the scope of study.
            e.g.:-experiment on a guinea-pig on a lab
c) Survey method
        -Here the survey is made with selected sample which represents the will of the entire population; social survey must be randomly selected. It is done by questionnaires, interviews, rating scales etc.Nowadays it is extended to telephone circles and mail questionnaires.
            e.g.:-survey after launching surf excels by the company about the product is responding in the market.
D) Case-study method
        -Studying the case history or previous history of the subject by using different tests or questionnaires. It is mainly borrowed from medical science.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATION
        This branch of psychology is also known as organizational or occupational psychology. Its application is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business organisations.It seeks to identify leadership styles,organisational conflicts and the psychological characteristics of the workplace.Not only it is concerned with business development but also the effectiveness and efficiency in the terms of employee's performance.Psychologist or the consultant of this branch are in great demand as they contribute greatly to the total organisational system and development.It also deals with employment of appropriate man power in the industrial organization

BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH OF PSYCHOLOGY
        This approach focuses on those aspects of behavior which can be directly observed and has a lot of influence on the environment in shaping that behaviours.Behaviourists minimise the role of organization and look for the environmental factors that control behavior in this approach. John B.Watson was the first American psychologist to introduce this approach. The behaviorist optimistically believes that by controlling a person's environment, it is possible to train him to show any kind of desirable behavior.
        According to behaviourism,in this approach behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner.This approach has a lot of followers in modern psychology because here emphasis on observable behavior continues till date.Behaviourists have made significant contributions in the field of learning,educational practises,treatment of mental disorders,controlling aggression and treating of drug addiction by following this approach.


COGNITIVE APPROACH

        -Cognition means knowing or knowledge.Cognitive psychology is a sub-discipline of psychology exploring internal and mental processes.It is the study of how people perceive,remember,think and solve problems.In current days cognitive model plays a very vital role because modern psychology wants to know hoe people behave and to understand people.For this careful attention should be given to cognitive processes.It suggests that people do not act mechanically to an information received from the environment but they choose and takes decisions among the various options available to them.Here the individuals' thoughts and imaginations,his knowledge and ideas also play a vital role in determining his behavior and response.

GESTALT SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY

        Gestalt school of psychology emerged in Germany.This school of psychology was founded by Max Wertheimir and his colleagues Kurt Koffka and Wolfang Kohler.They mainly did research in the area of perceptual and learning processes.The word "gestalt" is originated from Germany which means "form".The operational principle of the gestalt psychology is that human being by his eyes,scenes,objects entirely before perceiving their individual parts,suggesting that the whole is greater than some of the parts.Here the psychologist uses this principle by following this concept that mind or behavior must be studied in whole,not as elements or parts by following the cognitive approach.The gestalt school focusses on the study of perception in an organised way.It was of opinion that fundamental activities of the human mind functions a whole as it combines different units into a meaningful one.Their approach to the study of perception and learning is molar rather than molecular.They opined that there is always organization in perception.The contributions of the Gestaltists to the psychology of perception and learning are considered as outstanding.

PSYCHOANALYTIC SCHOOL(FREUD)

        Sigmeund Freud was a neurologist who developed it.He gave a new dimension to the concept of unconscious mental processes by predicting its impact upon the development of human personality and its significant role if mental abnormality.Freud's outstanding conceptions contributed in developing a theory of psychological disorders as a remedy to treating mentally abnormal people.Here the consultant uses pre-association method where a person is asked to openly share all thoughts,feelings and ideas that comes to one's mind.Dream analysis is also used in this approach.
        In this approach,it divides personality into three structures.These structures are inter-related and overlap each other in times.These are used as strong psychological forces.
            The three structures are:-
1)Id
        Id refers to the pleasure principle and desires of a person.It is fully unconscious.Needs and desires mostly immoral,unsocial and anti-social is the main concern of Id.The main purpose of Id is to discharge tension.It is the energy to satisfy basic urges,needs and demands.
2)Ego
        It develops out of Id.It works on reason and reality principle.It represents the social demands and ideas.It tries to keep up balance between Id and super ego by mediating the demand of the Id,the super-ego and reality.
3)Super-ego
        It deals with ideals and is regulated by conscience.It is a content of personality composed of the ideals that we have accured from our parents and society.

SENSATION AND ATTRIBUTE OF SENSATION

        Sensation referss to sensing our environment through taste,touch,sight,sound and smell(the five senses).The organ,the receptor cells which brings us information from our environment is called the sense organ.Sensation provides us information about the external world.Without these sensations it would have been very difficult to live in the world and adjust with surroundings.
        The attributes of sensation are:-
1)Qualities
        Different sensations have different qualities.The sensation of taste differes from the sensation off brightness and colour.Thus each sensation differs in quality from another.Even there is a difference in the quality of the same sense.In visual sensation there are red,yellow,blue which differs from each other.

2)Intensity
        The sensation of the same quality may differ in intensity.A sound may be loud or moderate,a colour may be deep or pale.Keeping the other factors same,Greater the intensity and stronger is the sensation.

3)Clarity
        The advertisement which is in the centre of the newspaper page is more clear than which is in the fringe or ground.If it is more clear,it will effect the sensation mode.

4)Duration
        The longer the duration of its stay,stronger is the sensation.With the difference in duration,the sensation may also differ.An advertisement exposed for half seconds have different effects upon one's sensory experiences.

5)Extension
        The sensation which is larger in area is different from a sensation which involves a small area.A large advertisement or a huge bunch of flowers has different sensatory effects than a smaller one

PERCEPTION
       
            After sensation comes perception.When meaning is added to sensation,it becomes perception.Meaning can be added by past experiences and learning.Perception can also be called a process of inforrmation,extraction and preparation for response.But we do not perceive each and every sensation.We perceive which we want to perceive while interacting with the environment.Our sensory receptor organs are affected by number of stimuli,this is called sensation and when some past experience,learning and meaning is added to it,it becomes perception.For instance,suppose you see a big bird like object flying in the sky.This is sensation,when you attend it and say that is an aeroplane,it becomes perception.

ATTENTION

            After sensation when we make us ready for a perception or prepare ourselves to react to the situation,before comes attention.Attention is featured by increased clarity,bringing out the details or what is attended.It can also be said that at a particular moment,it can be numerous stimuli from the environment exciting our sensory cells,but we attend to a particular stimuli.It can also fluctuate and shift from the moment to moment.Our attention may be due to our own will or pressure or because of habit.

FEEDBACK

            Communication is not complete unless it is understood and response is the last step of communication process.Every communication process should result in some kind of message that is received,understood and interpreted correctly and acted upon.This is feedback
            Feedback is a response by the receiver to the sender's message.Feedback provides a means to evaluate the effectiveness to the message.Positive feedback informs that the message was achieved.Negative feedback informs there is a lack of communication.
            Feedback makes communications a two way process.The more "feedback oriented" a communication process,the more effective it becomes.In a face to face conversation,feedback is usuallu simple and immediate.In a non verbal communication,feedback may be in the form of nodding of the head,avoiding eye contact etc.
            Sender should know the impact of his message on the receiver.Therefore feedback has to be built in the system of communication

DETERMINANTS OF ATTENTION

There are two types of determinants of attention:-a

    OBJECTIVE OR EXTERNAL                                       SUBJECTIVE OR INTERNAL

1. Intensity                                                              1.Organic needs and motives
2. Size                                                                    2.Interest
3. Duration                                                             3.Habit
4. Novelty                                                               4.Attitudes and moods
5. Repitition                                                                5.Social suggestion
6. Change                                                               6.Distraction and attention
7. Systematic form
8. Movement
9. Location
10. colour
11. contrast
12. prepotency





OBJECTIVE DETERMINANTS

            These factors or determinants which lie in the stimulus are called the external or objective determinants.These are qualities and features in the object of attentionFor e.g. deep and bold colours draw our attention immediately.

    1)Intensity
            -The more intense the stimulus,the more likely it is to be attended.The sound coming from loud speakers,strong fragnance,bright colours draw our attention immediately.On the other hand a soft whisper,low sound,pale colours,dim light do not catch our attention.

      2)Size
            -Big things always draw more attention than smaller ones.A big poster,a big elephant,a full page ad draw more comparison in comparison to their smaller counterparts

      3)Novelty
            -Most of us attend to anything that is novel-things which we are accustomed to,which are relatively new to us,whether sound,smell or taste which instantly gets noticed by us.For instance,strange animals,unused colours draw our attention more than the conventional ones.

      4)Repitition
            -A weak stimulus frequently repeated may be presented as a strong one than if presented once.For instance,when we are studying and somebody gives a knock on the door,we ovrlook it but if the knock is made repeatedly over and over again,we will attend and open the door.But there is a limit to the effectiveness of repitition.If it goes beyond the limit,it ceases to drop just like diminishing returns.For e.g.:-the continuous and repeated ticking sound of the clock kept on the study table kills attention,though it is infront of us.

      5)Change
            -A change of variety in the physical characteristics of the stimulus is most welcome in an area of attention more than reading and stereotype factors.For e.g.:-sound of fan goes on continuously,does not draw our attention but the moment the sound stops it revives our attention back at once.

    6)Movement
            -A running ball,a moving hand,a moving picture on the TV gets more attention than those objects which do not move and remain static.Moving of the object gives it a new character which is absent in a object which does not move.

    7)Location
            -Keeping other factors same,the thing which is kept infront of our eyes will draw our attention directly.

    8)Colour
            -


    9)Contrast
            -


    10)Prepotency
            -



INTERNAL OR SUBJECTIVE DETERMINANTS

        -The internal determinants of attention lie with the individual who attends,so these are known as subjective conditions of attention.for e.g.:-a thirsty person will prefer a glass of water over moutn-watering dishes..

    1)Organic needs and motives
            -Here biological needs of an individual plays a potent role.For instance,a person who is tired,and needs sleep and rest will try to get a soft bed.A hungry person will prefer food to anything else

    2)Habit
            -A person who is interested in smoking will always be drawn to cigarettes,an alcoholic to alcohol etc.It is also called habitual attention.A major portion of our day to day attention is determined by habit

    3)Interest
            -Interest is a powerful determinant of attention.Individual differences in attention to a stimulus occur because of a person's interest,For eg:-a movie which doesn't have the entertainment for a box office hit may be attended by the persons who have interest of big film.

    4)Attitude and moods
            -A person who is worried or depressed will attend the small trivial annoyances while one who is in a pleasant mood will attend to pleasant objects.

    5)Social suggestion
            -People attend to those objects which they are asked to attend.For instance:-it is said that always obey your elders.We follow it even if they misguide us  at times

LEARNING

        -Learning starts from the moment of birth and continues till death.Learning is an ability that helps us to respond to different situations differently because of past experiences.Due to this capacity to learn,our later behavior is modified by our earlier behaviour.The do's and dont's of life's socialisation process,development of language and values,knowledge regarding various aspects of lie all come through learning.Learning is an outcome of the interaction of the organs with the environment.It establishes new relationships between a stimulus and a response.Learning also refers to the development of skills and strategies to deal with various problems of life ,to adjust with dynamic circunstances which surround the human organism.

    1)Classical conditioning
            -refer to pavlov's theory of conditioned reflex(the dog experiment)

    2)Operand conditioning
            -It was developed by B.F.Skinner in the year 1940.Its main concept is that operand conditioning reward is contingent upon upon or depends upon a response.Here it is contingent upon the response.Here B.F.Skinner made an experiment:-"bar processing experiment to prove the theory of operand conditioning."Here the environment of the operand chamber used in the bar processing experiment was controlled by lights and sounds.A hungry rat was put inside the small small compartment of a box.The box had a lever which was mechanically connected with food.When the lever was pressed,an electrical device was releasing a pellet of food into the food crate.The lever was corrected by a stylus to record each and every movement of the lever.Gradually the rat learned to press the lever to get reinforcements(food pellets).In this experiment,the lever was called conditioned stimulus and pressing the level,the conditioned response or the operand behaviour.Pressing the lever was the most important thing in the experiment because it was operating the behavior and was bringing the reinforcement.If the animal would fail to press the lever,the food would not come.This is called operand conditioning.

GESTALT'S VIEW OF LEARNING/INSIGHTFUL LEARNING

        -Gestalt developed a theory of whole position in learning and perception known as "gestalt theory of learning"..The word "gestalt" is a german word with no exact english translation.It more or less refers to "form".It means objects and things are perceived as a whole,in complete form.This is the main concept of gestalt's school.Her at first,a stimulus is observed as a whole then it is analysed part by part.For eg:-when we see a bird,we say it is beautiful,we don't perceive part by part of the bird and then say that it is beautiful.We perceive as a whole and then come to the part features like eyes,feather,colour,size etc.Some researches have shown that higher animals like monkeys,chimps and adult human beings are able to bring the correct solution to a problem in a single trial in a sudden flash.This is called insightful learning.It mainly depends upon intelligence and understanding of the learning.Here the situation should be perceived as a whole instead of separating it into components or elements and learning part by part.This is called "Gestalt view of learning or insightful learning".


SILENCE IN COMMUNICATION

        -Silence is often an effective medium of communication.There is an old proverb :"Silence is more eloquent than words".."There are various situations in which nothing can express one's response so effectively in silence.
         Silence can effectively communicate a number of responses.Two strangers talk to each other for a few moment and then sink in silence,i.e,there is a communication gap between the two.
         During a speech,a light pause before an important point creates suspense.It raises a sense of anticipation and the audience listens to the next point more attentively.Also,if the speaker uses a slight pause,it indicates that something very important has been said.Thus,effective speakers can evoke the iuntended response through silence.

ILLUSTRATIONS AND GRAPHICAL VISUAL AID

        -As a form of visual amedia of communication,illustrations and graphical visual aid is extremely useful in easy and speedy communication of information specially through designs,models,maps,diagrams,chart,graphs,tables etc.
         Graphical aids such as tables,charts are tools for presentation of quantitative data more efficiently enabling the receiver to compare and contrast data.A chart is a pictorial representation and depicts non-numerical relationship and graph depicts quantitative relationship.Graphical aids allow the communicator to present his data more clearly and in a small space.

PROGRAMMED LEARNING

        It is a developed and redesigned modern day concept of learning which is also known as programming the learning.By the use of modern technological teaching,machines like computers,laptops,film projectors,tape recorders,digital cameras and even through e-book.Here the teaching material is presented through a mechanical or electronic device.In programmed learning,whatever may be the methodology or gadgets used,the heart of the process is the program.They are more effective compared to mere books as they help to provide quick reinforcement to the learner either positive or negative.

THE PROCESS OF PROGRAMMED LEARNING

        The process of programmed learning consistes of several steps in several modes of programmed learning..In the process of programmed learning,the learner requires to write down the answers to a question by pushing or clicking a button indicating his choice among several alternative answers or to type his answer in an electronic type writer..When such machines are used to impart learning he gets immediate response whether the answer given by him is correct or wrong..In case of a correct answer,the reinforcement may be excellent or good..In case of a wrong answer,the response shall be apologetic..Here the machine automatically gives the reward or punishment and the teacher has nothing to bother about it..This is an instance of how the processs of programmed learning works..

PERSONALITY

        The term personality is derived from the Latin word "persona" which means a theatrical mask used by actors to indicate their role in theatrical play...People ordinarily think that personality means reputation or physical attractiveness,overall charm of a person but this view is not totally correct..Personality refers to the inner self of the person..So personality is the totality of a man when both his inner and outer qualities interact with each other..Personality of a person includes the external appearance,his abilities,tendencies,innate and acquired..Personality can also be said as the sum total of the impression that the individual manages to imprint on the other person..

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

        There are several features of personality which are described below:-

1) Personality is greatly influenced by social interaction..
2) Personality refers to persistent qualities of an individual..
3) Personality is unique.Every individual has his own set of personality..
4) Personality is not given to us ready made at birth,we have to accure it..
5) Personality remains as a whole,includes both inner and outer qualities of a person..

BIG 5 MODEL OF PSYCHOLOGY

            It means 5 basic dimensions/traits or range of personality..These ranges are described below:-

1) Extraversion
            -It is a dimension ranging from energetic,enthusiastic,talkative,sober,reserve and silent.

2) Agreeableness
            -It is a dimension ranging from good nature,cooperative,trusting and helpful at one end to irritable,suspicious and uncooperative at other end..

3) Conscientiousness
            -It is a dimension ranging from well organised,careful,self-disciplined,responsible and precise..At one end from disorganised,impulsive to carey nature at the other end..

4) Emotional stability
            -It is a dimension ranging from poised,calm composed at one end to nervous,anxious at the other end..

5) Openness to experience
            -It is a dimension ranging from imaginative,having broad interests at one end to having no interest at the other end.


Personality test

                 -It refers to the measurement and evaluation of individual personalities by the help of tests.It is an area which helps to  select people for different jobs by finding their interests realting to that respective  job.It also helps to diagnosis of behavior disorders of children and adults, measurement of anxiety, worry, depression before starting an experiment on psychological process.Even nowdays  couples show interest in the assessment of each other personality before marriage.Assesment of personality somehow helps to modify it.

Different types of tests used for personality test

                 -Psychometric tests

a) Case history

-it is used to gather information about the persons home environment,relatives, friends,parents,past illness,relation with parents,
siblings and classmates,friends and teachers.

b) Paper pencil test

-it is the traditional ,structured,easy way to administer,less time consuming and less costly test to measure one’s personality.It includes questionnaires,self report inventories etc

c) Rating scale

-used with infants and adults to rate their behavior in a point scale by their teachers,friends,supervisors about their impression regarding that person in a rating scale like absent,slightly absent,average,marked,very marked ,extreme or in a 5 or 7 point scale.

d) Behaviour test

-To test one behaviour by some test which includes personality traits like honesty leadership etc by assessing his personality by creating a situation where his certain personality traits can be assessed.

e) Interview

- it is a face to conversation between the interviewer and interviewee on some specific problems where certain aspects of personality which cannot be assessed objectively by questionnaire ,technique or rating scale.

 Projective techniques

a)Rorschach test

- it is a widely used and oldest projective techniques. Its main use is  to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly. There are ten official inkblots, each printed on a separate white paper, each of the blots has near perfect symmetry. Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background. Then the presenter asks the test subject to say what he originally sees, analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using tabulation and a separate location chart.

b) Rosenzweig picture frustration test

- The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study is usually considered a semi-projective technique in it each of the three forms (child, adolescent, and adult) consists of 24 comic strip pictures that portray a situation that might induce frustration. The overall purpose of the study is to assess how the examinee responds to frustration and frustrating situations. The test assumes that the way that the examinee responds to each frustrating situation depicts how they behave in the face of frustration.


c) Thematic apperception test
- The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures( 20pics) about which the subject is asked to tell a story. . Some of the cards show male figures, some female, some both male and female figures, some of ambiguous gender, some adults, some children, and some show no human figures at all. One card is completely blank and is used to elicit both a scene and a story about the given scene from the storyteller. Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender, any card may be used with any subject. The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented before him.
d) kahn test of personality arrangement
- It involves projection of personal needs into symbols which have meaning in all cultures such as dogs ,cats, stars, sky etc. Here the subject is instructed to say what these symbols mean to him and arrange them according to different sets of directions.This test measures traits like creativeness and estimates loss of function arising  out of  emotional and organic stress.
e) word association test
- In WAT the subject is instructed to respond with the first word that comes into his mind after hearing the stimulus word without any resistance or apparent relevance to the response word.It helps to do clinical diagnosis differentiating a normal from psychic, determination of areas of complexes and detection of guilt.
EMOTION
Define emotion
-The word "emotion"  was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up" It means[A mental state that arises spontaneously rather than through conscious effort and is often accompanied by physiological changes; a feeling: the emotions of joy, sorrow, reverence, hate, and love.It can be also said a conscious mental reaction  subjectively experienced as strong feeling usually directed toward a specific object and typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body.Emotions also play a vital part in our  motivational patterns.Life without emotions would be virtually a life without motion.



Types of emotions

                

Q) Explain the physiological basis of emotion?
        -Emotions play an important role in the life of human beings. Person experiences various emotions during waking hours. There is a strong physiological basis for each emotion experiences for example an individual may be anxious about grade in academic level, may get real satisfaction when his instructor praises him in class with excellent remark, may get terrorised when he received blank calls repeatedly and someone threatens him, may feel pain due to psychological pressure of studies and many more.
Mostly common emotions which a normal person experiences in his daily life include fear, aggression, joy, envy, pleasure, distress, grief, sadness, elation, excitement, surprise, guilt, interest etc.These emotions are associated with strong physiological reactions. Physiological component may be internal and expressive body changes. Different kind of emotions differs in physiological reactions from each other. . For instance, if we consider fear and anger, they have many bodily changes common that are due to increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system. In both Fear, and anger, the heart rate usually increased. When we felt afraid, it is difficult for us to breath. Frequency of anger leads to high blood pressure many times. During the course of aggression, sometimes blood vessels in the muscles dilated so body is more prepared for action. Muscles tension and breathing rate increase in fear and anger every time. But increase in muscle tension occurs usually greater in anger than fear. In the same way, rise in blood pressure was generally higher in anger than fear. While breathing rate were increases more in fear than anger. It has been shows faster heart rate in joy, anxious, sadness and shame.These are the physiological basis of emotion.
Memory

Define forgetting

    -Forgetting(retention loss) refers to the apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in an individual's long term memory.It is a spontaneous or gradual proces in which old memories can't be recalled from memory storage.Here memory memory performance is usually related to the active functioning of three stages.These stages are encoding,storage and retrieval.Many different factors influence the acctual process of forgetting like retrieval failure,interference,failure to store etc.Forgetting can be reduced by repeation or more elaborate cognitive process of information or use of mnemonics.Emotional state is one of the main factors that have been found to effect this process of forgetting a lot.As a result this severe case may be described as amnesia..

Causes of forgetting

    -Memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus has identified $ major regions for forgetting.They are:-

a)Retrieval failure
   
        -It is also known as the "decay theory".According to this theory,a memory is created everytime when a new theory is formed.Decay theory suggests that overtime this memory trace begins to fade and disappear if the information is not retrieved and rehearsed and one day it will eventually be lost.

b)Interference

        -Interference theory suggests that some memories compete and interfere with the other memories.When any information is very similar to other,information previously stored in a memory gets deleted.Thus interference is likely to occur.

c)Motivated forgetting

        -Sometimes we may actively work to forget memories specially those of traumatic or disturbing events or experiences.The two basic forms of motivated forgetting are suppression and repression.

d)Failure to store

        -Sometimes losing information has less to do with forgetting and more to do with the fact that it is never converted into the long term memory in the first place.Encoding failures sometimes prevent information from entering the long term memory.


Interference theory of forgetting

    -In the Interference theory of forgetting we forget something because other information learnt interferes with our ability to recall.There are 2 types of interference:-

1)Proactive interference

        -Proactive interference occurs when something that we previously learnt interferes with remembering new information.For e.g.:-A person who studied psychology last term and is currently taking a course that is very much similar to the one learnt earlier will find it difficult to learn and remember the information in the course currently taken.This may be due to the interference of similar information.

2)Retroactive interference

        -It occurs when new information learnt interferes with remembering previously learnt information.For eg:-One might have difficulty remembering what happened at a business meeting over a month ago more than information leaarnt in a more current meeting.

WORKING MEMORY/STM

        -STM is also known as primary or active or working memory.It is the information that we are currently aware of or are thinking about.Information comes from paying attention to sensory memories.For eg:-someone tells his name or phone number to a person.Most of the information kept in STM will be stored for approximately 20-30 seconds by rehearsal or by active maintenance (to note down) of the information,the limited capacity of STM can be increased.While many of our STM are quickly forwarded but by attending the information allows him to continue to the next stage-Long term Memory.STM or working memory refers to the process that are used to temporarily store,organise and manipulate information.

LONG TERM MEMORY/LTM

        -It refers to the continued storage of information.Here the information is fairly easy to recall.Through the process of active maintenance and rehearssal,the content of the STM can become LTM.LTM can last for a matter of days to as long as decades.Long term memory is usually subdivided into 2 parts-Declarative or Procedural memory.

Declarative:- Declarative memory includes episodic (specific events) and semantic memory ( knowledge about words)
Procedural:- Involves memories of body movement and how to use objects in the environment.For eg:-how to drive a car or use a computer are examples of procedural memories.


       



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